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GAMBIA-L  November 2012, Week 4

GAMBIA-L November 2012, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Africa’s Political Skeletons – Part One

From:

[log in to unmask]

Reply-To:

The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 26 Nov 2012 16:25:43 -0500

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Parts/Attachments

text/plain (334 lines)

Please refreshen my memory.At what juncture was "Divide and rule" 
initiated? Was that not the strategy used to conquer Samori ? Who came 
up with that ? Was the French or British ?
hous

-----Original Message-----
From: Baba Galleh Jallow <[log in to unmask]>
To: GAMBIA-L <[log in to unmask]>
Sent: Mon, Nov 26, 2012 1:57 pm
Subject: Re: [G_L] Africa’s Political Skeletons – Part One

No Kejau, Africans did join both before and during the 
conquest. European traders and companies had a presence on the coast of 
Africa long before the onset of colonialism and had developed close 
relations with local traders and rulers willing to do business with 
them. From around the middle of the 1400s when the Atlantic Slave 
Trade was started on a small scale by the Portuguese, there was a 
constant European presence on the coasts of Africa. Only a few European 
administrators, military officers and commanders were on the ground 
throughout the colonial period. Once the colonizing project was being 
contemplated, the Europeans started recruiting and training Africans 
and developing their armies. It did not take them long to recruit 
sizeable numbers of men with the help of local chiefs and traders. One 
irony of European colonialism in Africa is that the Europeans 
represented what has been called "a thin white line" on the continent 
throughout the colonial period. Only a handful of Europeans actually 
lived in Africa. The colonial administrative machinery was largely 
manned by Africans - from chiefs, to clerks, interpreters, secretaries 
and other minor officials. The exception was the setller colonies - 
like Kenya, Rhodesia, South Africa - were large numbers of Europeans 
settled and actually ran the colonial administration. And even in 
settler colonies, the armies and police were largely composed 
of African servicemen, with Europeans holding only a few senior 
positions. In the case of South Africa, black South Africans 
represented the backbone of the brutal military and police forces that 
enforced Apartheid throught its existence.
 
Baba
 

Date: Mon, 26 Nov 2012 19:22:23 +0100
Subject: RE: [G_L] Africa’s Political Skeletons – Part One
From: [log in to unmask]
To: [log in to unmask]

interesting Dr. Baba that the European Armies were largely composed of 
African soldiers. Do you mean after the initial conquest as they could 
not have join before the conquest. This must be the same trend we see 
now African and Arabs joining western armies en mass and looking down 
at everyone else especially those who join the African armies. 
Cheers,
Kejau 
&gt;
&gt; Indeed Kejau. The single most important reason for Africa's 
failure to
&gt; protect herself from colonialism is the fact that European armies 
had
&gt; superior firepower. There was widespread resistance to colonial
&gt; encroachment and the African armies far outnumbered the European 
armies
&gt; which, by the way, were composed largely of African soldiers. 
Samori
&gt; fought the French for almost eight years before he was tricked 
into laying
&gt; down his arms and then captured and exiled. Thanks for the 
feedback.
&gt;
&gt; Baba
&gt;
&gt;
&gt;
&gt;
&gt; Date: Mon, 26 Nov 2012 09:10:06 +0100
&gt;
From: [log in to unmask]
&gt; Subject: Re: [G_L] Africa’s Political Skeletons – Part One
&gt; To: [log in to unmask]
&gt;
&gt;
&gt; Thanks for this installment, Dr. Maudo Baba. It seems that the 
only reason
&gt; we were colonized was that we lacked superior weapons and it was 
not the
&gt; armies that failed us, but our industries and our pacifism. For if 
we had
&gt; the fire power invented decade before by the European scientist, 
Samori
&gt; and his warriors would have fended the invaders off our shores and 
that
&gt; would have taught them and ourselves that African is not for 
scrambling.
&gt; Cheers.
&gt; Kejau
&gt;&gt;
&gt;&gt; Africa’s Political Skeletons – Part One
&gt;&gt; By Baba Galleh Jallow
&gt;&gt; Perhaps the single most visible legacy of colonial rule in 
Africa is the
&gt;&gt; nation-state. The end of the slave trade in the early to 
mid-1800s gave
&gt;&gt; way to the rise of legitimate trade, the trade in goods and 
commodities
&gt;&gt; Europeans needed for the growth and success of the Industrial
&gt;&gt; Revolution.
&gt;&gt;
&gt;
From being commodities of trade themselves, Africans became producers of
&gt;&gt; commodities for sale to European traders. The more industries 
developed
&gt;&gt; in
&gt;&gt; Europe, the more Europe sought out sources of raw materials 
for their
&gt;&gt; factories. And the more goods the factories produced, the more 
Europeans
&gt;&gt; saw the need for stable overseas markets to which they would 
export
&gt;&gt; their
&gt;&gt; finished products. A combination of these factors initiated a 
search for
&gt;&gt; both sources of raw materials and markets for finished 
products in
&gt;&gt; Africa.
&gt;&gt; As the 1800s drew to a close, Europeans grew increasingly 
frantic in
&gt;&gt; their
&gt;&gt; search for raw materials and markets in Africa, which led to 
the
&gt;&gt; beginnings of a barely concealed rush for territories on the 
continent.
&gt;&gt; What has become known as the scramble for Africa was greatly 
accelerated
&gt;&gt; after France’s humiliating defeat at the hands of the Germans 
during the
&gt;&gt; Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71. In order to salvage her 
battered
&gt;&gt; dignity,
&gt;&gt; France turned to the development of an overseas empire by 
annexing
&gt;&gt; territories in Africa and elsewhere. Soon afterwards, France’s
&gt;&gt; traditional
&gt;&gt; rival Britain joined the scramble for Empire, followed by 
Italy, Germany
&gt;&gt; and Belgium. So frantic did the grab for African colonies grow 
that the
&gt;&gt; European countries were close to all-out war over parts of 
Africa by
&gt;&gt; 1883.
&gt;&gt; Seeing a chance to both manage the crisis and play a leading 
role in
&gt;&gt; international politics, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck of 
Germany convened
&gt;&gt; the Berlin Conference of 1884 – 1885 at which the contending 
European
&gt;&gt; powers laid down ways and means of partitioning and colonizing 
the
&gt;&gt; continent without coming to blows among themselves. The 
conference
&gt;&gt; lasted
&gt;&gt; from November 1884 to January 1885, when the assembled European
&gt;&gt; countries
&gt;&gt; signed the Berlin Act laying down rules and procedures for the 
orderly
&gt;&gt; partitioning and colonization of Africa.
&gt;&gt; The Berlin Act set out four major rules for the partitioning 
of Africa.
&gt;&gt; One, any European country making claim to an African territory 
must
&gt;&gt; inform
&gt;&gt; the others to see if there was a counter claim. In case of a 
counter
&gt;&gt; claim, the matter was to be settled peacefully. Two, once a 
European
&gt;&gt; country claims a territory, it must proceed to effectively 
occupy that
&gt;&gt; territory. Three, all European countries were free to extend 
their
&gt;&gt; territory as much as they could without encroaching on another 
European
&gt;&gt; country’s territory. And four, the Congo and Niger rivers, 
which were
&gt;&gt; hotly contested in the early stages of the scramble, were open 
to free
&gt;&gt; navigation by all European countries. European countries 
proceeded to
&gt;&gt; either forcefully annex African territories or sign “treaties 
of
&gt;&gt; protection” with African rulers as a way of laying claim to 
their
&gt;&gt; territories. Those rulers that resisted encroachment were 
defeated or
&gt;&gt; otherwise “pacified” through superior European fire power. 
While there
&gt;&gt; were instances of fierce and protracted resistance by African 
rulers
&gt;&gt; like
&gt;&gt; Samori Toure, superior firepower meant that Europe was able to
&gt;&gt; effectively
&gt;&gt; subdue and colonize the entire African continent by the end of 
the first
&gt;&gt; decade of the 20th century.
&gt;&gt; This meant that by the outbreak of the First World War in 
1914, the
&gt;&gt; political map of Africa had been transformed into a series of 
colonial
&gt;&gt; territories that became the basis for the present day 
nation-state
&gt;&gt; system
&gt;&gt; on the continent. African colonies had most of the trappings 
of European
&gt;&gt; nation states: they had clearly defined boundaries and 
institutions such
&gt;&gt; as legislatures and judiciaries modeled on the European 
system. However,
&gt;&gt; while the bare structure of the nation state system was in 
place, the
&gt;&gt; substance of national sovereignty was clearly absent. The 
rights and
&gt;&gt; freedoms enjoyed by European publics were not extended to the 
subject
&gt;&gt; peoples of colonial Africa. Indeed, in a lot of cases, colonial
&gt;&gt; administrators enforced laws in African colonies that had long 
been
&gt;&gt; extinct in their countries back in Europe. Moreover, even as 
late as
&gt;&gt; 1939
&gt;&gt; when the Second World War broke out, no European country was 
seriously
&gt;&gt; contemplating the idea of independent African nation states. 
Indeed, it
&gt;&gt; was only after the end of the Second World War in 1945 that 
countries
&gt;&gt; like
&gt;&gt; Britain and France started seriously thinking about preparing 
their
&gt;&gt; African colonies for self-rule, a process they anticipated 
would take at
&gt;&gt; least fifty years to complete.
&gt;&gt; As fate would have it, over 90% of African countries became 
independent
&gt;&gt; by
&gt;&gt; 1965, only twenty years after the end of the Second World War. 
The new
&gt;&gt; African nation states had all the trappings of European nation 
states,
&gt;&gt; from a national flag to a national anthem and legislative, 
judicial and
&gt;&gt; executive branches of government. However, like the colonies 
they
&gt;&gt; replaced, these new nation states lacked the substance of
&gt;&gt; nation-statehood. Their beautifully written constitutions 
looked just
&gt;&gt; like
&gt;&gt; European constitutions, with the rights, duties and 
responsibilities of
&gt;&gt; citizenship neatly laid out in black and white. It now fell to 
the new
&gt;&gt; governments to flesh out these skeletal nation states with the 
substance
&gt;&gt; they needed to function effectively. Sadly, almost all of them 
failed in
&gt;&gt; this very important task and for this reason, the great 
majority of
&gt;&gt; African countries remain mere political skeletons to this day. 
The
&gt;&gt; rights
&gt;&gt; and freedoms for which African independence was sought and 
attained
&gt;&gt; remain
&gt;&gt; elusive for the great majority of Africans as the new nation 
states
&gt;&gt; remain
&gt;&gt; mired in the aura of colonial authoritarianism. We will 
examine some of
&gt;&gt; the reasons for this failure and its consequences in our next
&gt;&gt; installment.
&gt;&gt;
&gt;&gt; ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
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&gt;
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